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Ceramic raw material

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Ceramic products for construction, domestic and industrial uses are obtained making a wide use of natural raw materials. Bricks, tiles, sanitaryware, tableware, lightweight aggregates and silica-alumina refractories are all manufactured mainly utilizing clay materials, feldspathic fluxes and/or quartzous sands; in addition, complementary raw materials are seldom used (e.g. talc, carbonates, wollastonite, zircon, borates, lithium minerals).

The behaviour during the technological process and the technical properties of ceramic products often strictly depend on the characteristics of raw materials (chemical and mineralogical composition, particle size disttribution and specific surface area, plasticity and fusibility, etc.).

In this field, CNR-ISTEC is involved not only in prospecting, characterizing and developing new deposits and uses of raw materials for ceramics, but also in modelling their properties and technological behaviour.

3_RES_2_ITA_MATERIEPRIME1PUBLICATIONS:

Dominguez E., Iglesias C., Dondi M., The Geology and Mineralogy of a Range of Kaolins from the Santa Cruz and Chubut Provinces, Patagonia (Argentina). Applied Clay Science, 40 (2008) 124-142.

Dondi M., Iglesias C., Dominguez E., Guarini G., Raimondo M., The Effect of Kaolin properties on their Behaviour in Ceramic Processing as Illustrated by a Range of Kaolins from the Santa Cruz and Chubut Provinces, Patagonia (Argentina). Applied Clay Science, 40 (2008) 143-158.

Zanelli C., Dondi M., Baldi G., Ercolani G., G. Guarini, M. Raimondo, Glass ceramic frits for porcelain stoneware bodies: effects on sintering, phase composition and technological properties. Ceramics Int., 34 (2008) 455-465.

de’ Gennaro R., Cappelletti P., Cerri G., de’ Gennaro M., Dondi M., Guarini G., Langella A., Naimo D., Influence of zeolites on sintering and technological properties of porcelain stoneware tiles. J. Eur. Ceram. Soc., 23 (2003) 2237-2245.

Dondi M.: Clay materials for ceramic tiles from the Sassuolo District (northern Apennines, Italy). Geology, composition and technological properties. Applied Clay Science, 15 (1999) 337-366.

PROCESSES & FACILITIES:

Raw material classification. Compositional and technological characterization of clay materials (kaolins, ball clays, common clays and shales, pyrophyllite, bentonite, etc.), fluxes (feldspars, feldspathoids, feldspathic rocks), fillers (quartz and quartzous rocks), pore-forming agents and sintering promoters (calcite, dolomite and carbonatic rocks; talc, wollastonite, lithium minerals, etc.), opacifiers (zircon, corundum, etc.). Quantitative chemical (ICP-OES) and mineralogical (XRD, Rietveld-RIR) analyses; particle size distribution (Sedigraph); specific surface area (BET); plasticity (Atterberg, Methylene Blue index, Pfefferkorn); drying behaviour (Bigot curve, retractometer); thermal behaviour (TGA, DTA, DSC); fusibility (hot stage microscope); laboratory simulation of the manufacturing processes of ceramic tiles, refractories, clay bricks and roof tiles, lightweight aggregates, sanitaryware, with measurement of technological properties of semi-finished and finished productsylene Blue index, Pfefferkorn); drying behaviour (Bigot curve, retractometer); thermal behaviour (TGA, DTA, DSC); fusibility (hot stage microscope); laboratory simulation of the manufacturing processes of clay bricks, roof tiles, and lightweight aggregates, with measurement of technological properties of semi-finished and finished products.

MAIN SCIENTIFIC COLLABORATIONS:

  • Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Federico II University, Naples, Italy
  • Departamento de Geología, Universidad Nacional del Sur, Argentina

Projects

Bilateral scientific cooperation agreement CNR-CONICET (Argentina): “Development of new raw materials for the ceramic industry: geology-technology synergy” (2007-2008). “Relationships between geological features of kaolin deposits and technological behaviour in ceramic applications” (2003-2004)